1. Set aside time to plan
Effective planning requires that you have a good understanding of your current tax situation, as well as a reasonable estimate of how your circumstances might change next year. There's a real opportunity for tax savings if you'll be paying taxes at a lower rate in one year than in the other. However, the window for most tax-saving moves closes on December 31, so don't procrastinate until the last minute!
2. Defer income to next year
Consider opportunities to defer income to 2019, particularly if you think you may be in a lower tax bracket then. For example, you may be able to defer a year-end bonus or delay the collection of business debts, rents, and payments for services. Doing so may enable you to postpone payment of tax on the income until next year.
3. Accelerate deductions
You might also look for opportunities to accelerate deductions into the current tax year. If you itemize deductions, making payments for deductible expenses such as medical expenses, qualifying interest, and state taxes before the end of the year, instead of paying them in early 2019, could make a difference on your 2018 return.
4. Factor in the AMT
If you're subject to the alternative minimum tax (AMT), traditional year-end maneuvers such as deferring income and accelerating deductions can have a negative effect. Essentially a separate federal income tax system with its own rates and rules, the AMT effectively disallows a number of itemized deductions. For example, if you're subject to the AMT in 2018, prepaying 2019 state and local taxes probably won't help your 2018 tax situation, but could hurt your 2019 bottom line. Taking the time to determine whether you may be subject to the AMT before you make any year-end moves could help save you from making a costly mistake.
5. Bump up withholding to cover a tax shortfall
If it looks as though you're going to owe federal income tax for the year, especially if you think you may be subject to an estimated tax penalty, consider asking your employer (via Form W-4) to increase your withholding for the remainder of the year to cover the shortfall. The biggest advantage in doing so is that withholding is considered as having been paid evenly through the year instead of when the dollars are actually taken from your paycheck. This strategy can also be used to make up for low or missing quarterly estimated tax payments. With all the recent tax changes, it may be especially important to review your withholding in 2018. Estimate your federal income tax at: https://www.symmetryfp.com/resource-center/tax/federal-income-tax
6. Maximize retirement savings
Deductible contributions to a traditional IRA or a pre-tax contributions to an employer-sponsored retirement plan such as a 401(k) can reduce your 2018 taxable income. If you haven't already contributed up to the maximum amount allowed, consider doing so by year-end. Can you contribute to an IRA? Try this calculator: https://www.symmetryfp.com/resource-center/investment/contributing-to-an-ira
7. Take any required distributions
Once you reach age 70½, you generally must start taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) from traditional IRAs and employer-sponsored retirement plans (an exception may apply if you're still working for the employer sponsoring the plan). Take any distributions by the date required — the end of the year for most individuals. The penalty for failing to do so is substantial: 50% of any amount that you failed to distribute as required. Estimate your RMDs at: https://www.symmetryfp.com/resource-center/retirement/estimate-your-rmd
8. Weigh year-end investment moves
You shouldn't let tax considerations drive your investment decisions. However, it's worth considering the tax implications of any year-end investment moves that you make. For example, if you have realized net capital gains from selling securities at a profit, you might avoid being taxed on some or all of those gains by selling losing positions. Any losses over and above the amount of your gains can be used to offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income ($1,500 if your filing status is married filing separately) or carried forward to reduce your taxes in future years.
9. Beware the net investment income tax
Don't forget to account for the 3.8% net investment income tax. This additional tax may apply to some or all of your net investment income if your modified adjusted gross income (AGI) exceeds $200,000 ($250,000 if married filing jointly, $125,000 if married filing separately, $200,000 if head of household).
10. Always get help from a licensed TAX professional
There's a lot to think about when it comes to tax planning. Any tax planning strategies are always going to be unique to you, your family, and your specific financial situation. That's why it usually makes sense to talk to a tax professional who is able to evaluate your particular situation and help you determine the best course of action and whether any year-end moves would make sense.
In the meanwhile, please enjoy time with your family & friends during any upcoming end of year festivities!
PS: Don't forget to visit our Tax Resources' page at: https://www.symmetryfp.com/tools/tax-resources
***The information in this blog post is intended to be informational. It is NOT intended as tax or legal advice. It may not be used for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. Please consult legal or tax professionals for specific information regarding your individual situation.